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Innovative Atmospheric Remote Sensors and new measurements techniques



  1. High Power UV Lidar
The High Power UV lidar is proposed by the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) and will be developed by Raymetrics S.A.. It will be installed in the PANhellenic GEophysical observatory of Antikythera (PANGEA) of the National Observatory of Athens within 2021. Its main parts include a high power linear polarized laser at 355nm and two telescopes, one for near field and one for far field (main) operation. The instrument will be optimized for daytime and nighttime operation. It will perform temperature and water vapor profiling measurements from N2 and H2O vibrational Raman scattering. It will also allow the retrieval of the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles at 365nm and 387nm from rotation Raman and N2 vibrational Raman, respectively. The elastic co and crossed polarized backscattered signals will be collected and combined to the total aerosol backscatter coefficient and the volume and particle depolarization ratio profiles will also be obtained. The overall aim for this system is to perform operational measurements and deliver all aforementioned products (temperature, water vapor, aerosol extinction coefficient at 365 and 387nm, aerosol backscatter coefficient at 355nm, volume linear and particle linear depolarization ratio at 355nm) with high spatio-temporal resolution down to a few hundred meters above ground.
This lidar will also include a Multispectral Detector from Licel enabling it to perform spectral measurements in 32 channels. A flexible dedicated spectrometer is applied with tunable central wavelength in the ultraviolet and visible parts of the spectrum and offers up to 3 different spectral resolutions. Aerosol laser induced fluorescence at 355nm excitation will be mainly targeted during night. Lidar profiles of fluorescence spectra are a fresh topic in the remote sensing community and can be applied for detection of biogenic particles such as pollen, viruses, fungi, and bacteria. Furthermore, it is possible to target specific vibrational Raman peaks with the spectrometer that correspond to gases such as O2, and CH4 (current state-of-the-art) taking into advantage the high emitted power. Detection of additional gases that scatter less due to their lower concentration levels will also be explored with the novel instrument.
 
 
  1. Enhancement and Validation of ESA products (eVe)
EVE is a depolarization lidar system developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by Raymetrics S.A. in collaboration with National Observatory of Athens (NOA) and Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich (LMU). It is an innovative, mobile system which consists of a dual-laser/dual-telescope configuration. . It enables the simultaneous emission of linearly and circularly polarized radiation at 355 nm and the detection of the elastically backscattered radiation with polarization sensitive channels, as well as the inelastic (Raman) backscattered radiation at 387 nm. EVE aims to provide the ESA-Aeolus mission with a flexible, mobile reference ground-based lidar system capable of providing well-characterized fiducial reference measurements of aerosol optical properties. Moreover, it can be upgraded to multi-wavelength system to support calibration/validation activities of the ATLID lidar on-board the upcoming EarthCARE satellite ReACT team has actively contributed in the calibration and first QA/QC tests of the instrument and will operate the instrument in the upcoming ASKOS campaign. Two relevant publications are under preparation concerning the first tests and obtained products.
  

Aerosol Species Separation Algorithm (ASSA)

 
Multi-spectral depolarization Raman lidar measurement are the basis of the forward model ASSA. The concept is described in Siomos et al. 2020b and the technique in Siomos et al. 2021. It is based on a look up table (LUT) of aerosol mixtures constructed by externally mixing raw aerosol species from the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) database (Koepke et al 2015, Hess et al. 1998). Currently mixtures of water soluble, soot, coarse sea salt, coarse dust are tested. Hygroscopic growth is taken into account according to OPAC parameterizations. The algorithm operates in two phases. Initially, it simulates the attenuated backscatter coefficients and volume depolarization ratios per vertical level for each mixture in the LUT. It selects the mixture profiles (potential solutions) that best describe the actual measured ones with the lidar. Then, through a RTM (currently libRadtran, Emde et al. 2016) it reproduces measured-like radiance spectra (direct, diffuse, global) per mixture profile in parts of the solar spectrum that are practically unaffected by absorbent gases. These are compared with actual measured spectra from radiometers and the mixture profile with the best general agreement given instrumental uncertainties is selected as the final solution. Being based on an RTM, the overall approach is rather flexible and any lidar and radiometric system that operates in the UV/VIS/IR can be included.
 
Figure 1: This flowchart demonstrates the input and output of ASSA. BRW, LDR, and SPR stand for Brewer spectrophotometer, lidar system, and DOAS/MAX-DOAS system, respectively
Figure 1: This flowchart demonstrates the input and output of ASSA. BRW, LDR, and SPR stand for Brewer spectrophotometer, lidar system, and DOAS/MAX-DOAS system, respectively

References

Emde, C. et al., The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations (version 2.0.1), Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 1647-1672, 2016

Hess, M. et al, Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The Software Package OPAC, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 1998, 79, 831-844, 1998

Koepke, P. et al., Technical Note: Optical properties of desert aerosol with non-spherical mineral particles: data incorporated to OPAC, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 5947-5956 , 2015

Siomos, N. et al.,  Towards an Algorithm for Near Real Time Profiling of Aerosol Species, Trace Gases, and Clouds Based on the Synergy of Remote Sensing Instruments, EPJ Web Conf., 237, 08023, 2020b

Siomos N. et al, A technique to retrieve vertical concentration profiles of individual aerosol species based on the synergy of lidar and spectrophotometer measurements, submitted in the 15th International Conference on Meteorology Climatology and Atmospheric Physics (COMECAP) ,  2021

About Us

ReACT stands for “Remote sensing of Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases”, to describe the research focus of the respective research team led by Dr. Vassilis Amiridis. ReACT consists of highly motivated scientists within the field of Atmospheric Sciences, combining a number of Post-doc researchers, Ph.D. and M.Sc. students as well as other research and technical staff, using the resources, infrastructure and experience of the Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS).


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